How Do Artists Express Fatherly Love?

Pooja Savansukha looks at the double role taken on by four leading Indian artists of their time 

For many of us, Father’s Day is opportune to express our love and gratitude to our respective fathers. They’re always going out of the way to make us happy. But how about men whose roles have extended beyond their immediate familial duties? We’ve all got fathers who are lawyers, engineers, writers, teachers…the list goes on, and at some level they do assume a double role where their professions seep into their personal lives.  Here, I’ve picked four highly influential Indian artists of their time who have expressed their love for their children through art:

Raja Ravi Varma as an expressive father

Most of us would immediately associate Raja Ravi Varma with the birth of a modern visual culture in India. His works reflect a colonial influence of realism, while portraying distinctly Indian subjects. He was the first Indian artist known to use oil paints, to portray mythological characters in human forms and to become famous and influential. Although his beginnings are traced to Kerala, his fame spread far and wide through the oleographs he printed in his own press in Bombay. Some of his most famous works include depictions of scenes from the mythic stories of Nala and Damayanti, and Dushyanta and Shakuntala. Though we recognise Ravi Varma as the Father of Modern art in India, his fatherhood is also literally displayed in his graceful portrayal of his first daughter Mahaprabha Thampuratti, and grand-daughter in his painting, ‘There Comes Papa’. The painting also reveals Ravi Varma’s depiction of his personal life—an aspect that is not often associated with the subjects of his works. Ravi Varma was the father of five children: two sons and three daughters.

There Comes Papa (1893) Photo Courtesy: http://www.indiancentury.com/varma.htm

There Comes Papa (1893)
Photo Courtesy: http://www.indiancentury.com/varma.htm


Nandalal Bose as his descendants’ student

Nandalal Bose is a renowned artist known for his participation in the Bengal School of Art that arose as an Avant Garde and Nationalist movement in response to the prevailing British Art schools in India. His work is predominantly influenced by nationalist themes, Indian rural life, and Hindu mythology. Most of his paintings are considered to be national treasures and his influence has extended beyond his own time.Along with his paintings, he was also famed for his prints, such as his black and white lino cut of Gandhi during the Dandi March.  However, many may not know that his lino cut, and other printmaking techniques were skills that he honed through his own son, Biswarup Bose, who taught print-making at the Kala Bhavan in Santiniketan. Nandalal Bose as a father had not only encouraged his son to pursue art by sending him to study in Japan, but also actively learnt from him. Nandalal Bose also inspired and drew inspiration from his grandson, architect, Supratik Bose. As for Supratik, he once said in an interview: “There’s one funny thing: He had trouble drawing a bicycle rickshaw. He couldn’t figure out how the structure holds the seat on two wheels. I had to draw and show him the triangular structure. So, in a sort of mechanical sense, he wasn’t as good as I was!”


M.F. Husain and his doting nature

Maqbool Fida Husain is one of the most acclaimed Indian artists. He began to earn recognition upon his active participation in the Bombay Progressives Movement that rejected the nationalist traditions of the Bengal Art School. He is known for portraying subjects such as Mother Teresa, Mahatma Gandhi, as well as characters from Hindu mythology and symbols from Indian life.  His style displays an inspiration from both Indian and Western traditions (particularly Cubism). One of the most distinguishing factors of his artistic achievements is that he is a self-taught artist. Having extremely humble beginnings, he began his career by painting for film hoardings, and later on working at a toy manufacturing factory. As he is more famously known for his paintings, few among you may know that his hand-crafted wooden toys are not only unique and rare to his oeuvre, but they also have a very personal relevance to his life. As theorist Ram Chatterjee expressed, “Making toys has really been an aesthetic adventure for Husain, inspired by the arrival of his first daughter he sat down to create a few things which would please and perhaps amuse her. Fond sentiments of the father combine with the vision of the artist in him to offer the little one a rare reception…” Toy-making that was inspired by his impending fatherhood became yet another testament to Husain’s unique creative process.


Atul Dodiya and his fatherly concerns

Contemporary artist Atul Dodiya is known for creating works that explicitly negotiate between his own personal life, and issues that surround his immediate context, in Mumbai. His 1997 painting ‘Lamentation’ was created in light of the violence in his otherwise peaceful neighbourhood, Ghatkopar in Mumbai, following the demolition of the Babri Masjid. In his painting, one would immediately recognise the figure of Gandhi walking away into the distance that is depicted on one half of the painting. In the other half of the painting, Dodiya portrays an autobiographical element by appropriating an image of his own daughter (who was four at the time) in Picasso’s Cubist style, as if to express his inner-conflict regarding how to raise a child in such a violent setting.

It goes without saying that every father finds a unique way of expressing his love for his child(ren). Perhaps you could relate to some of these sentiments, either as a father or as someone’s child. Love may be expressed differently by everyone, but on some level, the feeling is universal.

India in All its Glory in Husain’s Paintings at the V&A

Audrey Bounaix takes you through India’s 3000-year history in eight triptychs by Husain

Back in the 1980s, the Victoria and Albert Museum had acquired two sets of lithographs by Maqbool Fida Husain. This time, they’ve set up a room to house his painted triptychs. Eight large panels on view from 28 May – 24 July 2014, offer viewers—especially those new to Indian art—a chance to interpret India in its myriad traditions. As someone with a deeply rooted interest in Bollywood cinema hoardings, I jumped at the occasion thinking that Husain’s monumental triptychs would be in the same vein as his early billboard paintings. My visit to the V&A convinced me otherwise. It had nothing to do with the glamorous cinema world, but instead illustrated the richness of India’s history. We sense reminiscences of his early work freely inspired by photography; Husain is no longer roaming the streets of Madras to capture street imagery, but roaming through Indian history in order to translate as closely as possible its richness. This manifests metaphorically in the art on display. It was meant to be on a grander scale; the artist was still working on the project at the time of his death and originally envisaged a series of 96 panels for Mrs Usha Mittal who commissioned it in 2008.

I was first plunged into darkness as I stepped into the V&A room, but a brightly-painted Ganesha then welcomed me. As if I was performing the traditional pradakshina—or, to use an approximate translation, circumambulate a Hindu templethe display transported me to a similar spiritual mindset. The dynamic representation of Ganesha is accompanied by a curvaceous female form similar to the terra cotta modelling produced during the Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1300 BCE).

M.F. Husain, Ganesha, 2008. Courtesy of Usha Mittal,  © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

M.F. Husain, Ganesha, 2008. Courtesy of Usha Mittal,
© Victoria and Albert Museum, London

This painting is significant in setting a new benchmark through its representation of Indian cultural heritage through eight triptychs. The scale allows for the narrative to move and inspire viewers. The first triptych is titled Three Dynasties, and explores Indian history through three different rulers. Among them, two are foreigners and assume the left and right panels, whereas the Maurya reign is in the centre with its famous Ashoka pillar erected under Emperor Ashoka’s rule. The four-headed lion facing the four main directions is replaced by a real one here. Husain also added what seems to be a seal representing Buddha’s Enlightenment, to recall Ashoka’s renouncement of the world and adoption of Buddhism. Mixing the time and forms, the artist is playing with timeless symbols. In the right panel, he has pared down the time of British Raj to medal-laden British dignitaries with imperceptible features. Queen Victoria is enthroned in a neo-classical pavilion, and Mahatma Gandhi and a Rolls Royce also figure in this panel. Husain’s aim is not to depict historic events as they happened but more to give us an idea through symbols that encapsulate the stakes of Indian history.

M.F. Husain, Three Dynasties, 2008-2011. Courtesy of Usha Mittal, © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

M.F. Husain, Three Dynasties, 2008-2011.
Courtesy of Usha Mittal, © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Another triptych full of details and references, so much so that it will make you smile once you decipher them, is titled Tale of Three Cities. Here again, the middle panel seems to hold a special significance and Varanasi, city of spirituality, holds this privileged place. Delhi is on the left, while Rabindranath Tagore, Subashchandra Bose, Satyajit Ray and Mother Theresa all figure in Kolkata’s panel in a patchwork’s assemblage, where only the Indian nationalist is given recognisable features . Even though the faces are left without features, symbols are recognised at first sight since they are reduced to their essential attributes. Colours are used for some clarity purposes to delineate the different parts and persons. Strokes of warm paint alternate with shadows to create volume. Husain’s genius lies in his mix of forms and ideas which trigger an immediate sense of identity.

Husain has always believed that Indian culture is not fundamentally Islamic or Hindu, but secular. In Traditional Indian Festivals and Indian Householders, he takes the viewer through a composite culture that has evolved over centuries. The glimpse into the homes of Hindu, Sikh and Muslim families is specified by an aim “to tell a true story of our common people”. In light of his commentaries, the Singer sewing machine, a Hindu journal, an umbrella, a bicycle, the Coran, a Siva Nataraja statue, a hukka, a calendar poster of Govind Singh are stressed as common objects characterising people more than their religion does. Husain attempts to attach himself to reality by portraying his family from memory, the Nanboodri family of Madurai, and Sardarji Bunta Singh of Ludhiana, but the faces and expressions remain obscure. Though on the surface it tells us to assimilate ourselves with families going about their daily life, the underlying theme is of unity which resonates with Husain’s own beliefs.

M.F. Husain, Indian Households, 2008-2011.  Courtesy of Usha Mittal © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

M.F. Husain, Indian Households, 2008-2011.
Courtesy of Usha Mittal © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Husain’s sensitivity to history is evident in his picturisation of Rabindranath Tagore’s quote: “How the language of stone surpasses the language of man”. In Language of Stone, he chooses to pay a tribute to the rich South Asian lithic heritage. As before in Tale of Three Cities, the statuesque figure of the poet is represented in dark shades while Husain uses warm colours for art objects. He makes reference to the Indus Valley Civilization with the insertion just under the epitaph of The Priest with Trefoil Drape, a masterpiece ranged between 2500-1500 B.C. and preserved today at the National Museum of Karachi. With the Qutub Minar painted in a low-angle shot, a 10th century high-relief from Khajuraho and a wheel from the 13th century Surya Temple, Husain opts for pre-historical or medieval Indian sculptures. Even if there is no Buddha with gentle modelling forms typical from the Gupta Age, I have to say that Husain knows how to pump energy in objects that are inherently statics.

M.F. Husain, Language of Stone, 2008-2011. Courtesy of Usha Mittal © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

M.F. Husain, Language of Stone, 2008-2011.
Courtesy of Usha Mittal © Victoria and Albert Museum, London

 

Priest King with Trefoil Drape, Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization (3300-1300 B.C).  National Museum of Pakistan,  Karachi. PhotoCourtesy: http://www.harappa.com/indus/41.html

Priest King with Trefoil Drape, Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization (3300-1300 B.C).
National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi.
PhotoCourtesy: http://www.harappa.com/indus/41.html

The same frenetic energy is seen in Modes of Transport, where Husain presents the multiple journeys of India’s citizens as a metaphor for the journey of life. His impressions of India’s history, religion and everyday living are translated through strokes of vibrant colours and superimpositions of ideas and symbols.

Husain’s journey through Indian history is completed through another medium: film. His early cinematic experiment—a 1967 film documentary—translates his impressions of Rajasthan in a very aesthetic way. This freely inspired work filming a shoe, an umbrella and a lantern in a close-up, does not remain extraneous to the triptych series. It intersperses countryside, faces and objects in the same way symbols are isolated in his paintings.

This exhibition is a prompt to travel. More importantly, entry is free to the public. Husain’s images are powerful and vivacious, and that’s enough incentive to drop by to view these works.

Happy 100th Mr. Husain

Aaina Bhargava on Saffronart introduces the exhibition Maqbool at Dubai’s Sovereign Gallery

M F Husain, Story of the Brush, Pencil on Paper

M F Husain, Story of the Brush, Pencil on Paper. Image Credit: http://www.sovereignfze.com/Photos/maqbool/23_MFHUSAIN_L.png

London: December 2011, M F Husain dies.  Now, in 2013, the Sovereign Gallery in Dubai is celebrating his birth centenary with an exhibition featuring twenty-five rare self-portraits of the iconic artist.

M F Husain, Self Portrait, 2003, Oil on Canvas board

M F Husain, Self Portrait, 2003, Oil on Canvas board. Image Credit: http://www.sovereignfze.com/Photos/maqbool/19_MFHUSAIN_L.png

Known for his cubist take on Indian modernism, his horses, and sometimes ‘controversial’ depictions of sensitive subjects such as religious deities, his self portraits were usually kept private from public display, until now.   Amongst creating an estimated 60,000 artworks, self-portraits are only a few.  Most works belong to private collectors who had to be rigorously convinced by Sovereign Gallery owner Dadiba Pundole to lend for display.  In his words,

“It has taken me several years to identify and borrow this exceptional body of work from collectors around the world, and we are glad to mark Husain’ birth centenary with this ode to his extraordinary oeuvres…MAQBOOL showcases the legendary artist’s interpretation of himself – at different ages from six upwards, through a range of mediums, and highlighting various aspects of his life… Husain was an acclaimed portrait painter — albeit not in the classic sense — and his self-portraits are another dimension of this medium…however, it is fitting that we could finally bring it to fruition for his birth centenary. This is a tribute to the man I have known and the artist I have represented for most of my life.”

M F Husain, Autobiography X, 1989, Watercolour on paper laid on board

M F Husain, Autobiography X, 1989, Watercolour on paper laid on board. Image Credit: http://www.sovereignfze.com/Photos/maqbool/02_MFHUSAIN_L.png

The exhibition presents a unique opportunity to view the artist’s experience of self-reflection at and of various stages in his life.  An artist, who has been instrumental in representing modern art not only to the Indian public, but representing Indian modern art to the world, certainly has a self-perspective worth experiencing.  The works are featured in a variety of mediums on canvas and paper and six additional non-portrait works will be displayed as well.

M F Husain, Maqbool, Oil and Acrylic on Canvas

M F Husain, Maqbool, Oil and Acrylic on Canvas. Image Credit: http://www.sovereignfze.com/Photos/maqbool/05_MFHUSAIN_L.png

As a precursor to the opening, and as a tribute to Husain’s lasting influence, Mirror Images will display self-portraits by 9 – 11 year students from Dubai International Academy.  Maqbool will run from 22nd November to 12th December 2013 at Sovereign Gallery, Dubai, an expansion of Pundole gallery in Mumbai, where the relationship between the Pundole family and M F Husain initially began.  Consequently, it is only fitting that Husain is re-introduced to the Middle East in the more intimate manner that Maqbool intends to reflect.

For information regarding the exhibition, please visit Sovereign Gallery.

 

Ram Kumar and the Bombay Progressives

Ipshita Sen of Saffronart announces the upcoming exhibition of the Bombay Progressive artists at the Aicon Gallery, New York

New York: Aicon Gallery in New York presents ‘Ram Kumar and the Bombay Progressives: The Form and the Figure’.

Ram Kumar’s works, from his figurative to city and landscape, reflect his emotional world. His landscapes have a subtle lyricism and lively buoyancy, thus defining his artistic oeuvre.

“When I paint, I don’t think about any specific elements- be they spiritual or supernatural elements of nature. They are paintings –pure simple, plain, painted color propositions, emerging from one’s past experiences” -Ram Kumar

As a student in Paris, Kumar had several interactions with poets and intellectuals, who influenced him and his work greatly. He studied art under Andre Lhote and Fernand Léger. Attracted by the Pacifist peace movement, Kumar joined the French Communist Party, thereby seeking inspiration from Social Realists such as Käthe Kollwitz. His artistic approach was centered on a humanist rather than an ideological approach; Sad figures with gaunt expressions and starry eyes, painted against the backdrop of an industrialized ambience, reflected by the almost monochromatic use of a limited color palette. Ram Kumar currently lives and works in Delhi, India.

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The exhibition also features works by M.F. Hussain, S.H. Raza and F.N. Souza, all founding members of the Bombay Progressive Group.

The exhibition is on view from September 13th- October 19th, 2013

For more information, please access the gallery website.

Peabody Essex Museum opens pivotal show of Modern Indian Art

Manjari Sihare shares some snapshots from the latest exhibition of modern Indian art at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts

New York: The Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts, recently opened a major show of modern Indian art entitled “Midnight to the Boom: Painting in India after Independence.” This exhibition showcases approximately seventy works by twenty Indian artists spanning three generations. The works have been culled from the museum’s iconic Chester and Davida Herwitz Collection, renowned as one of largest collections of modern Indian art in the United States and the world, for that matter.

I had the pleasure of attending the opening of this seminal show in early February, and was immediately struck by its intelligent curation by Susan Bean, the recently retired senior curator of South Asian and Korean art at the Peabody Essex Museum. In this show, works of master Indian artists have been juxtaposed alongside key works by artists around the world in what have been referred to as “conversational groupings” by the curator. So you will see Bikash Bhattarjee’s works against those of American artist, Andrew Wyeth, and Maqbool Fida Husain’s horses with those of veteran Chinese artist, Xu Beihong, among others.

The exhibition is on view for another two months, until April 21, 2013, and Salem is an easy half an hour from Boston. For those in the vicinity of North Eastern US in the coming weeks, this show is a must-see! Stay tuned for more on the show in the coming weeks. For now, here are some snapshots from the opening.

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All images are courtesy the Peabody Essex Museum.

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