Shradha Ramesh celebrates the 125th birth anniversary of Jamini Roy
New York: The current exhibit ‘Journey to the Roots’ at the National Gallery of Modern Art (NGMA), Delhi, evokes a sense of nostalgia. As the title notes, the exhibit celebrates the 125th centennial of Jamini Roy (1887-1972), one of India’s most celebrated 20th century artists. He is one of the pioneers of modern Indian art, who revolutionized the field and created a new visual language. A language that was more egalitarian and forthright.
I would like to quote the Cultural Minister Chandresh Kumari Katoch who described the artist in the best light: “Jamini Roy’s contribution in the growth and shaping of modern Indian art is well-established and enormously significant. His artworks have a particular appeal in the popular imagination because of their strong, simple forms and vibrant colours…” His painting style is an eclectic representation of both Western training and Indian inspiration. Seeing his style one might refer to him as modern India’s outsider artist. But there is lot more to the artist and his work.
Born in Beliatore, West Bengal, his repertoire evolved from classical British academic nudes and landscapes to scenes that appropriated forms of folk and calligraphic expression.
A student of Abanindranath Tagore at Santiniketan, Calcutta, he was trained in western academic styles. He later gained inspiration from Indian epics and episodes such as the Ramayana and Mahabharatha for his two dimensional paintings. His oeuvre was also strongly influenced by Kalighat Patuas, a popular painting genre from his region. This folk painting style is linear, with bold and vibrant colors. Jamini Roy had captured the essence of this traditional Bengali style of painting and incorporated it with his own modern sensibility.
The NGMA exhibit is an odyssey through the artistic explorations of Jamini Roy’s lifetime. A mellifluous blend of modern thought with traditional themes and indigenous brush strokes, his works speak volumes.
A historic year of record-breaking sales, powered by a thriving art market and a resilient and unified art community, 2021 has turned out to be one of the most exciting and spirited years we’ve seen at Saffronart. As we turn the page on 2021, we would like to take a moment to review a monumental year wherein Saffronart has consistently taken on a leadership role through the challenges thrown by the ongoing pandemic.
For Saffronart, one of the highlights of 2021 has been the increased interest in modern Indian art globally. The record-breaking sales which led each major Saffronart auction have underscored the tremendous interest for Indian art on a global platform. These auctions dramatically expanded our reach as we shifted to a live hybrid auction format that seamlessly incorporated state-of-the-art technology, expanded access, and an enhanced experience for art collectors and bidders from around the world.
With the heightened demand for Indian art and our updated auction format, we now reach twice as many bidders with four times the number of auctions in 2021 than we did in pre-pandemic 2019. In particular, the total number of auctions that take place on StoryLTD has gone up by nearly 500% during the same period, with a significantly higher percentage of lots sold in 2021. Along with this, we have also been able to expand the range of categories offered through StoryLTD to include jewellery, fine art, rare books, prints, photography, vintage cameras, ceramics, silverware, folk and tribal art, experiences, and other collectibles. These exciting new directions have taken shape through our new dynamic gallery space in Mumbai, featuring innovative displays and walkthroughs for art enthusiasts and collectors.
This year also bore witness to a dramatic increase in the number of top-value artworks being sold. In 2021, the number of artworks which sold for over INR 20 crores were four times that of the previous year.
2021 also showed us some of the most historic, record-breaking sales of modern Indian art, which included the sale of V S Gaitonde’s Untitled, 1961 at Saffronart’s Spring Live Auction in March 2021 for the price of INR 39.98 crores (USD 5.5 million), making it the highest value achieved for a work of Indian art in auction worldwide, as well as Amrita Sher-Gil’s In the Ladies’ Enclosure, 1938 at Saffronart’s Summer Live Auction in July 2021 for INR 37.8 crores (USD 5.14 million), making it the highest value achieved by the artist in auction and the second-most expensive work of Indian art sold globally.
That’s not all. We’ve had a year that’s seen record prices being hammered down for the works of Jamini Roy (Untitled for INR 4.32 crores (USD 583,784)), C Raja Raja Varma (Baby and Princess, 1887 for INR 3 crores (USD 402,685)), and Rama Varma (Untitled, 1914 for INR 2.16 crores (USD 289,933)). In our sales, about 40% of the works sold at prices that were well above the higher estimate.
2021 was also a year where Saffronart hosted two successful online auctions for fine jewellery, silver and luxury watches, as well as contemporary furniture, handwoven rugs and rare books. The jewellery auction featured a unique turban ornament designed by the late renowned jewellery designer Munnu Kasliwal, which sold for over INR 90 lakhs (USD 123,000).
While we were fortunate to have been in a position to innovate and adapt in a manner that helped us navigate the turbulent waters of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was also an opportunity for us to give back when it was most needed. We hosted fundraising auctions through 2021 in partnership with arts, cultural and charitable organisations in order to support organisations working on the front lines to help those with the greatest need. This included Art Rises for India, a COVID-19 fundraiser auction, supported by artists, galleries, and members of the Indian art community, which saw a successful sale of 100% of the lots leading to a sum of INR 2 crores being raised through the auction; the Times Art Fest Auction that raised INR 1.26 crores; the Young Presidents’ Organisation Charity Auction that saw a sale of INR 1.3 crores, which was approximately four times above the lower estimated price; and the India for Artisans fundraiser auction, organised in collaboration with 200 Million Artisans and Creative Dignity, that raised over INR 23 lakhs to aid in the economic recovery of artisan communities across the country. In addition, we have conducted multiple single owner sales on StoryLTD with the proceeds going to various charitable organisations.
As the market leader for modern and contemporary Indian art for the last six years, Saffronart works consistently towards presenting strong works by leading artists. Having led the Indian art market through 2021 with over 35% of the market share, we remain committed to developing and growing the art market in the years to come. We thank you for your support and feedback through this year and look forward to sharing our new directions and innovations with you in 2022.
The Indian subcontinent has nurtured some of the oldest human settlements and civilisations in the world. Having hosted countless cultural awakenings, innovations and exchanges since prehistoric times, the region boasts a rich and fascinating artistic history that continues to influence aesthetic movements and captivate spectators even today.
Beginning with the sculptural masterpieces of Buddhist and Hindu art from the first millennium to the ground-breaking modernist art of the 20th century, here we explore India’s captivating art history through a selection of works from Saffronart’s upcoming Winter Live Auction this December.
Early Buddhist Art
Some of the earliest records of artistic experimentation in Northern India during the Common Era can be traced to the Kushan Empire, which, during its peak, extended from Ujjain, Mathura and Sarnath, across the Hindu-Kush to Afghanistan and Bactria. Under Kanishka, their fifth and most famous ruler, the empire witnessed a period of great wealth and flourishing visual arts traditions. The Kushans are credited with some of the earliest depictions of Buddha in sculptural form, which includes the 2nd century red sandstone sculpture below.
Medieval Indian Art
From the 4th to 6th century AD, a large portion of northern India was conquered and ruled by the Gupta Empire, who produced some of the most recognised and celebrated works of sculpture and architecture in Indian history. The incredible developments in technology, literature, religion and visual arts during this period went on to shape the artistic productions of the many smaller dynasties that emerged in the following centuries.
One of the most significant characteristics of art produced during the medieval period, i.e., the 7th to 14th century AD, is the influence of religion and religious texts. As evident in the above 8th century sandstone carving depicting Ganga, the river goddess in Hinduism, the representation of religious figures, storylines and even philosophies through sculpture grew to become a significant practice. This tradition is noticeable even in the sculptures of kingdoms of southern India, especially the Hoysala Dynasty. As observed in the 12th century grey schist sculpture of Lord Ganesha, the sculptures produced under the Hoysala Empire showcase a classical style that is distinct to that of the northern schools.
Along with stone, bronze was another prominent medium in the sculptures of medieval India. While stone sculpturing was often practised on temple walls and similar architecture, bronze works were smaller in size and relatively easier to transport – giving them a prominent role in the diffusion of Indian philosophies, practices and religion, especially Buddhism, in Southeast Asia. The 12th century Pala sculpture of Uma-Maheshwara, and the 14th century Kulu sculpture depicting Vaikunta Vishnu from our collection showcases that bronze sculpturing thrived not only in the realm of artistic innovations, but also in transmitting cultural discoveries and tradition.
Painting Courts and Indigenous Art
Following the golden age of Indian sculpturing was a period that saw the development of a diverse range of painting schools including Mughal, Rajputi, Deccani and Pahari courts. The period also saw the resurgence of age-old indigenous art practices such as Pat or scroll painting. Developed in then-Calcutta, Kalighat Pat is a scroll-painting technique that gained momentum in Bengal during the 19th century as the port city transformed into a thriving industrial and commercial centre. As seen in the above Kalighat Pat from the 1860s, practitioners of the Kalighat art form traditionally depicted scenes from the life of Lord Krishna as well as other narratives from Hindu mythology.
Early Bengal School
The presence of British and European trading companies and governing bodies in India during the 18th and 19th century led to the creation of a new school of art known as the Company School. The school depicted Indian people, sceneries and subjects in a traditional Royal Academy-style of painting, thus recording life in Colonial India from a foreign perspective.
The Early Bengal School of Art was launched as a response to the increasing prominence of the Company School. Artists of the Early Bengal School, who remain largely anonymous till date, combined the artistic styles of the East and West to forge a direction that was vastly different from any other artistic movement prevalent during this time.
The final phase of colonial rule in India saw many attempts by artists to merge the artistic traditions of European schools with the age-old traditions, themes and practices of Indian art. One of the most significant artists from this time, Raja Ravi Varma was known for incorporating oil as a medium and adopting European naturalism and realism to portray distinctly Indian mythological themes.
The movement towards India’s independence from colonial rule urged artists to launch a new style of art that accommodated the changing social, political and cultural conditions of the country. For Jamini Roy, this meant seeking a new aesthetic style that reflected his cultural roots and fulfilled his need for a more personal artistic identity. He went on to introduce a new style of modern painting that celebrated and preserved the country’s regional artistic traditions, particularly Kalighat patuas, while simultaneously reconceptualising them to adapt to the changing times.
Modern Art in Independent India
The year 1947, when India gained her independence, also welcomed the launch of one of the most influential artistic alliances in India: the Bombay Progressive Artists’ Group. Initiated by artists S H Raza, F N Souza, K H Ara, M F Husain, H A Gade and S K Bakre, the group went on to lead the modern art movement in India. Although most of these artists began with a formal training in traditional realistic painting, capturing urban scenes, landscapes and still life through their art, the post-Independence era encouraged them to reach beyond the scope of European Realism and the Revivalist movements of the early 20th century. While the immediate response to their entry in the art world was shock and aversion, their presence was met with national and international respect, recognition and admiration in the years that followed.
The 1960s were a period of great artistic experimentation and discovery. Increased exposure to European and American modern art movements, as well as a renewed interest in the imagery of classical and regional Indian art, aided the artists of modern India – such as Ram Kumar, Prabhakhar Barwe, M F Husain, S H Raza as well as the other Progressives – to develop their own independent styles that eventually came to define their careers.
During this period, artist Ram Kumar moved from figurative works to an increasingly abstract renderings of cities and landscapes, whereas M F Husain developed an artistic style that efficiently brought together European modern art traditions and classical Indian forms, subjects and motifs. For S H Raza, the ‘60s were a key period of experimentation, aided by his exposure to the works of American Abstract Expressionists, whereas for Prabhakar Barwe, it was a period when he delved into the genres of Pop Art as well as Tantric philosophy and its imagery.
While many of the modernists were settling into their own unique artistic style and identity, artists such as Jagdish Swaminathan and Bhupen Khakhar were still in the early stages of their career during the ‘60s. Swaminathan, who was concerned with the creation of a truly Indian modern art that was developed by turning inward, explored and adopted the symbology of ancient cave paintings and the nation’s age-old indigenous art during this period. Meanwhile, Khakhar, who had just moved to Baroda from Bombay, would create an iconic style that featured elements of Hindu symbolism and elements of the Baroda School in formats that were inspired by Western Pop Art.
Late 20th Century
The latter half of the 20th century saw Indian artists experimenting with diverse mediums, techniques and disciplines, as one can see in the works of Himmat Shah whose sculptures were made from materials as wide as brick, cement, plaster as well as terracotta and bronze. Despite their differences in medium, the majority of art produced in this period of Indian history were connected by a similar purpose – an examination of life in the modern age.
From exploring the aftermaths of the Partition of India to examining the contemporary struggles of migrants, refugees and the destitute, art became deeply relevant, conceptual and heavy in metaphors alluding to matters of social significance. These qualities are demonstrated in Krishen Khanna’s bandwallah series as well as Zarina Hashmi’s semi-abstract woodcut and intaglio prints.
“The history of art is the history of revivals.” These words by British novelist Samuel Butler powerfully resonate with the evolution of Indian art. Since its ancient beginnings, a plethora of artistic traditions and movements have prospered in the subcontinent, each reflecting the distinctive and diverse political, cultural and social influences of the period from which they were conceived. Nevertheless, as seen in this brief journey through India’s rich artistic past, these multiple independent aesthetic movements bear many similarities despite their differences in time, geographic origins, and socio-political circumstances. From the influence of the Ajanta frescoes and Mughal miniature on the Early Bengal School of Art, to Himmat Shah’s sculptures that were inspired by the prehistoric masterpieces of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indian art has frequently touched upon the past when directing the future.
Being on Art+Auction’s Power 100 list, an individual shares only one characteristic with the fellow listees: distinction! So,how is who does and doesn’t make the list determined?
ARTINFO, under whose banner Art+Auction is published, canvas widely, soliciting contributions from all over the world to make sure the list is comprehensive. They aim to strike a balance between equally valid yet frequently competing areas of influence —weighing curatorial prominence against the character, agency, and the clout of individuals. Connections, magnetism, and leadership also play a role, especially when it comes to private collectors. A candidate’s future potential or ascendancy is also a quality they try to assess when considering for potential inclusion on the list.
The third of nine installments published by Art+Auction this year includes a list of individuals who are putting together groundbreaking collections: ‘Power Collectors.’ Among the top power collectors of 2012 is one well known name in India – one of the most important collectors of modern and contemporary Indian art – Kiran Nadar. Other collectors on the list include François Pinault, George Economou, Leon Black (who recently acquired Edvard Munch’s 1895 pastel version of The Scream for $120 million, the most expensive work of art sold at auction to date), and Len Blavatnik.
Nadar established the KNMA (Kiran Nadar Museum of Art), India’s first privately owned museum, which has an illustrious collection of about 700 modern and contemporary works. In 2010, Nadar bought S.H. Raza’s 1983 painting Saurashtra for a record-breaking £2,393,250 ($3.5 million) at an auction house in London. In April 2012, Nadar unveiled her most ambitious acquisition yet — Subodh Gupta’s 26-ton, 30-foot-high Line of Control, first displayed at the 2009 Tate Triennial. Line of Control was installed at the central foyer of the DLF South Court Mall in Saket, Delhi. It took 80 man hours, about 3 dozen people, unimaginable logistical effort, and superb execution to erect one of the largest public sculptures in the country.